TITLE: Law and Legal Services at CitiMall.com Online Shopping Mall

Law Category: Prepaid Legal Services, Law , Legal, Attorney, Advice, Firm, Search, Attorneys, Lawyers, Power of Attorney, Durable, Forms

Shopping Mall: Law and Legal Services get attorney advice, search, law firm, legal law advice Forms, law, power of attorney, Legal service, Free legal Forms, legal advice, legal, aid, legal document, prepaid legal, help, information

Law Topics: Preapaid Legal Services, Law, Legal, Attorney, Advice, Law Firm, Search, attorneys, Legal Terms, Free legal documents, attorney, lawyer, lawyers, power of attorneys durable, forms

TOP 100 BEST BUY
Meta Search Engine
Baby Books Camera & Photo Classical Music Computer & Video Games Computers DVD Electronics
Kitchen & Housewares Software Magazines Tools & Hardware Outdoor Living Popular Music Toys & Games Videos
Shopping Mall

LAW & LAW FIRM

SHOPPING MALL > DEPARTMENT STORE > LAW > LEGAL > LEGAL SERVICES > PREPAID LEGAL SERVICES

COMPARISON SHOPPING SEARCH ENGINE

Welcome to CitiMall.com Shopping Mall!

Our Shopping site features Law Information.

Featured Shopping Site:

Used Cars Used Car History

Offers auto consumer report and trader buying guide on new and used car products and services. Guide on AutoCheck used car history report, Kelley Blue Book, NADA and VIN number

Free VIN Check | VIN Number | AutoCheck | Kelley Blue Book | NADA
Find a lawyer! Legal Advice on ANY Situation!

More Prepaid Legal Services information on the following books:

1.
Books : The Pre-Paid Legal Story: The Story of One Man, His Company, and Its Mission to Provide Affordable Legal Protection for Everyone

2.
Books : Prepaid Legal Services and Legal Insurance : What CEOs, Human Resource Directors, Employee Benefit Brokers, Small Business and Home-based Business Owners Should Know!

Personal & Family members Legal Services

Business Legal Services

As a business owner, have you ever:

  • Signed a contract or document you hadn't fully read or understood?
  • Had difficulty collecting money from customers?
  • Wanted to have a resource for ANY business or legal question?
  • Got your questions answered by top quality attorney in your area. Watch Prepaid Legal Services Video online now!

Identity Theft

  • Prepaid Legal offers best Identity Theft protection - Identity Theft is a major problem in America, many people are looking for insurance againt identity theft. Learn about Credit Reports, Continuous Credit Monitoring, Identity Restoration with Restoration Reimbursement up to $25,000*.

Home Based Business Opportunity

Do you know someone who need legal services or attorney advice?

Prepaid Legal is Legal Services offered by Prepaid Legal Services, Inc.

Learn more information on Prepaid Legal and Identity Theft topics:

Shopping Links

Shopping Mall
TOP 100 BEST BUY
Meta Search Engine
Baby
Books
Camera & Photo
Classical Music
Computer & Video Games
Computers
DVD
Electronics
Kitchen & Housewares
Software
Magazines Subscriptions
Tools & Hardware
Outdoor Living
Popular Music
Toys & Games
Videos



Shop at Shopping Mall


BROWN v. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA (1955)

Freedom of the press is a bedrock institution in a democracy, but it is worthless if citizens cannot read and write. Though the Supreme Court says there is no federal right to education, every state does guarantee public schooling for all its young citizens and voters-to-be. If a state offers an education, declared the Court in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, it follows that it must offer an education that is equal for everyone.

During the two decades before a unanimous Supreme Court handed down its decision in the hallmark case of Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the brilliant young lawyers of the NAACP, including future justice Thurgood Marshall, were chipping away at the Court's now infamous opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson. This 1896 opinion established the constitutional legitimacy of the "separate but equal" doctrine, allowing the southern states to legalize racial segregation as long as equal facilities existed.

Efforts by southern states to fulfill the "equal" part of the "separate" doctrine at first forced them to pay the out-of-state tuition for African-Americans to go elsewhere for their training, but when this scheme was struck down in 1938, segregated states began to establish local public facilities tor African-Americans. This mode of enforcing racial parity finally reached an extreme when, in 1950, Texas set up a law school for a single individual virtually overnight.

The NAACP's efforts to persuade southern states to adopt a gradual approach to integration, including elementary and secondary schools, met stony intransigence. The stage was then set, as Thurgood Marshall later said, "to wage all-out war in the courts on segregated schools at every level." Suits were entered in three federal district courts— South Carolina, Virginia, and Kansas—in 1951. These were Fourteenth Amendment suits under the equal protections clause, and the plaintiffs claimed that by its very nature separate education was not and could not be equal. Thus, the principle at the very heart of Plessy v. Ferguson was attacked. Predictably, all the suits failed on grounds that Plessy was still the reigning precedent and that all the school districts at issue either had or were moving toward equal facilities.

These three suits, along with a parallel suit from the District of Columbia and one from the Delaware state courts, were joined and heard by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1952. The Court heard arguments from both sides. President Truman's attorney general, Edward T.McGranahan, joined Marshall from the NAACP with an amicus curiae, and 1924 Democratic presidential candidate John W. Davis argued for the defendant school districts. In an unusual procedure, after six months of individual thought and collective conversation, the Court, instead of handing down a decision, asked each side to brief a long series of historical questions related to the context and original intent of the Fourteenth Amendment. Marshall sensed that the Court wanted to undermine or overturn Plessy, if only it could find a juridically plausible justification.

Again John Davis argued for the school districts and Marshall for the plaintiffs. By this time Dwight Eisenhower was president and, though personally opposed to any peremptory integration of public schools, let his attorney general, Herbert Brownell, argue as an amicus curiae with the plaintiffs. Brownell agreed that legally segregated schools violated the equal protections clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. But he also believed that such a revolutionary change as to integrate at that time would be profoundly disruptive and would be violently opposed in those districts where segregation prevailed. He urged the Court to go slowly. Oral argument by Marshall and Davis was heard on December 8, 1953. Interruptions from the bench were frequent. Finally, a unanimous decision was handed down on May 17, 1954: "We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other 'tangible' factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does." And therefore, "Any language in Plessy v. Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected."

The end of Plessy, however, was not the end of the debate. The Court gave the sides time to generate remedies to the now unconstitutional condition of segregated schools, and a year after Brown there was a Brown II, in which the Court ordered segregated school districts to follow local court-ordered integration plans "with all deliberate speed." The most "deliberate" part of the matter was the reluctance and even the recalcitrance of some of the districts to carry out these orders. But the principle was stated and heard loud and clear throughout the nation in what many contend was the single most significant Supreme Court decision of the twentieth century.

Justice

Legal Education

The Practice

Trial

Court

Landmark Cases

Media

Lawyer

Conclusion

LAW

SHOPPING MALL > DEPARTMENT STORE > LAW > LEGAL > LEGAL SERVICES > PREPAID LEGAL SERVICES

Alexa Toolbar

FREE Download Search Engine Toolbar software to STOP pop-up ads powered by CitiMall.com Shopping Mall, Alexa web site ranking monitor and Google Search Engine!

"Through our partnership with Amazon.com, we are offering an exclusive CitiMall.com Online Shopping Mall version of the award winning Alexa web site ranking free software powered by Google Search Engine Toolbar. With Google search engine toolbar you can search Amazon book and products, CitiMall Shopping Mall Price Comparison Shopping products, search the web, search web site information and related links using Google search engine, right from your toolbar. Google Search Engine Toolbar functions as pop up blocker, stopper and killer that stop annoying pop up ads)."


Copyright 2006 © CitiMall Shopping Mall. All rights reserved. Entertainment Book - VIN Number - Free VIN Check - Kelley Blue Book - Car Insurance - Car Warranty - Used Car History - NADA - Legal

TITLE: Law and Legal Services at CitiMall.com Online Shopping Mall

Law Category: Prepaid Legal Services, Law , Legal, Attorney, Advice, Firm, Search, Attorneys, Lawyers, Power of Attorney, Durable, Forms

Shopping Mall: Law and Legal Services get attorney advice, search, law firm, legal law advice Forms, law, power of attorney, Legal service, Free legal Forms, legal advice, legal, aid, legal document, prepaid legal, help, information

Law Topics: Preapaid Legal Services, Law, Legal, Attorney, Advice, Law Firm, Search, attorneys, Legal Terms, Free legal documents, attorney, lawyer, lawyers, power of attorneys durable, forms